koi4u-2011 facebook  koi4u-2011 hoogland
You are here: HomeKoi HealthMedication

Medication

It was with great trepidation that we have resolved to make this part of the web-site accessible to guests. The first consideration was that there are so many “knowledgeable” persons that make it their business to criticise, that I dread getting into hours of debate regarding the treatment of fish.

Treating Koi with chemicals are harsh and these chemicals are poisonous to such an extent that it kills lower life forms like parasites, fungus and bacteria without killing the fish. It stands to reason therefore that most treatments are to a certain extent harmful to the Koi, and in some cases deadly for other species of fish. The treatments describe in this section were developed either through trial and error over many years, or it has been confirmed with Koi Health Experts all over the world. The bottom line is that not a single treatment is described in this section that I have not utilised myself for considerable time.

The biggest concern is that readers who have very little experience in Koi keeping may not understand the full spectrum of factors that may influence the treatment. Failure to understand all factors will result in a dead fish or failure to cure the disease. I am not present when you treat your fish and can therefore not be held responsible for losses or damage. If you are not confident in your abilities, please contact a knowledgeable person in your area to assist you.

A guide to the use of antibiotics

There have been numerous discussions regarding the use of antibiotics when treating koi. Mostly the discussions are amongst those that are willing to use it and those that are totally against the use of antibiotics.
 

This article is not intended to promote the use of antibiotics or to convince keepers to use antibiotics. It is merely to indicate the different views regarding antibiotics and also to guide the koi keeper should he/she have to decide in a specific situation whether to use antibiotics or not.

 

 

 

Last Updated on Thursday, 28 May 2015 13:28

Read more...

Acriflavine

 

Acriflavine is a yellow-orange powder that has been used for Koi heath treatments for many years. Until recently, Acriflavine has been viewed as not very effective and even described by some as a useless dye. It is however my opinion that more experimentation with Acriflavine is necessary to unlock the full potential that it has for the Koi industry.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:46

Read more...

Amikacin Injections

Amikacin is the one antibiotic that is still very potent in the treatment of bacterial disease in koi. I base this statement on the sensitivity tests that came back from laboratories. In most cases the bacteria is sensitive to Amikacin.   Amikacin is part of the amino glycosides like Streptomycin Tobramycin Gentamicin etc. and the problem with the use of Amikacin is the perceived/possible impact on the kidneys of koi. It is therefore mostly used as a last resort for koi keepers in treating diseased koi. The fact remains that given in the correct dosages, it will annihilate sensitive bacteria.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:47

Read more...

Baytril Injections

 

As stated in previous articles, the most effective way to treat a bacterial infection is to inject the Koi with antibiotics. This gets the proper amount of medication directly into the koi. There are various ways to sedate a Koi or to keep the Koi immobile to inject it, but the techniques warrant a separate article. The various ways to inject a Koi are described here.


Baytril is a synthetic antibiotic and while being a broad spectrum antibiotic it does not kill directly nor stun bacteria. It inhibits an enzyme which is important for bacterial replication. Enrofloxacin (Baytril) is widely used in ornamental fish although there is very little pharmacokinetic information. It is especially effective against gram negative bacteria.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:47

Read more...

Chloramine T

                          

 

Chloramine-T (n-chloro-para-toluene sulfonamide sodium salt) like most other koi medication that we use in bulk, is also used extensively for many other purposes. The uses include treating water plants, aquatic bio security, dental hygiene as well as a disinfectant for pig-, poultry-, and cattle farming, cooling towers and for veterinarian use. It is also used for disinfecting ion exchange resin.

  

 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:48

Read more...

Common Salt, Sodium Chloride, NaCI

Common Salt, Sodium Chloride, NaCI is probably the oldest fish-keeper's treatment and standby, because it works well against many protozoan parasites. It can also assist osmoregulation problems, assist in boosting the protective mucus layer, support fish suffering from stress and help clear congested gills. Salt also inhibits the uptake of Nitrites by the fish, thereby limiting the damage to the red blood cells. Salt is a very safe pond treatment, and will not adversely affect biological filtration in pond filters. It is generally used at fairly high rates in short-term baths or dips, but can be used as a long-term supportive treatment in ponds.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:48

Read more...

Emergency treatment for Koi

 

The purpose of this article is to assist the Koi keeper during those stressful situations when a “dead” Koi is discovered in or outside a pond. Take heart, it may not be dead but indecision or a lack of knowledge may be the reason that it will soon be really dead.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:49

Read more...

Entubating Koi

Over the years koi keepers had to adopt very ingenious ways to treat sick fish, mostly because there are very few Veterinarians that specialises in fish. Who can blame the Veterinarians? In today’s modern setup, very few will make house-calls and very few koi owners will put the fish on a leash and walk to the Vet! No the easiest way is to try and figure it out yourself, or phone around to ask friends. A very few lucky koi keepers will phone the correct friend.

A quick rundown of the various ways to administer drugs to koi are mentioned, just to get to the procedure of ‘Tubing”. This technique may assist koi keepers where other techniques fail.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:50

Read more...

Fish Anaesthetic

I have seen people with extraordinary skills catch a fish and inject it swiftly. The fish is clamped between the upper arm, forearm and the body of the handler and injected. This quick injection technique is valuable for wholesalers and breeders who must treat a high number of fish and the possible resulting losses are an accepted risk. This technique is risky especially if the substance to inject needs a prolonged injection time like Nuflor. The sharp bevel of a 20 gauge needle can inflict serious internal damage to a fish if it struggles during the injection.

 

This kind of “grab and stab” approach is really not necessary for the Koi hobbyist where every Koi is a treasure or a show specimen. The skill to anaesthetise a Koi will be a necessity and may be required from time to time to save a koi’s life. This skill may be required to do topical treatment of ulcers, to inject a fish or maybe to remove an object stuck in the throat. Unfortunately it is also sometimes necessary to take it to the extreme and humanely dispose of a Koi.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:49

Read more...

Injecting Koi

There are many opinions regarding the use of antibiotics amongst the koi fraternity. There are even articles on this web-site warning against the use of antibiotics. Mostly the resistance among koi keepers refer to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by mixing it with food or adding it directly to the water. A little knowledge about the stability of the ingredients in koi food and the rapid loss of effectiveness of antibiotics once opened is sufficient to question these methods. In the light of bacteria’s ability to “remember” and build some kind of resistance to the antibiotics that is frequently used, one tends to agree with those opposing antibiotics. The fact is that antibiotics are the only way to save a Koi once it has reached a certain stage of disease, and the only effective way to administer these drugs is through injection.

Much has been stated on how to inject Koi. Some experts feel that Intramuscular Injection (IM) is the best way, while others feel that Intraperitoneal Injection (IP, injections into the body cavity) is the preferred route of administration practiced around the world in aquaculture. There are also those who feel that they will never inject their koi. Injecting koi requires some skill and the responsibility remains that of the owner to ensure that it is done properly and correctly. The goals of this article are to assist the hobbyist and dealers on the differences between the location of the injection site and the proper technique for injecting koi. The specific injection site should be determined after consideration of various factors that will be discussed throughout this article.  

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:50

Read more...

Malachite Green and Formalin

 

Malachite Green and Formalin have been used for many years against a range of parasites, and can be used together or separately as anti-parasite treatments against Gyrodactylus  (skin flukes), Dactylogyrus  (gill flukes), Ichthyobodo  (Costia), Trichodina , Chilodonella and Ichthyophthirius (white spot). It is especially effective against white spot, because the relative long active life of this treatment, together with the low filter toxicity makes it ideal for tackling the complex life cycle of this protozoan parasite.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 October 2014 20:03

Read more...

Methylene Blue

 

 

Methylene Blue comes as a very dark green powder, appearing blue when dissolved in water. Considered a 'traditional' medication for bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, it is used less frequently as it is highly toxic to plants and will wipe out the bacteria in a biofilter. It is easily absorbed through cell membranes and affects cell activity by raising oxygen consumption within cells. The therapeutic action of Methylene Blue on bacteria and other parasites is probably due to its binding with cytoplasmic structures within the cell and also its interference with oxidation reduction processes 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:51

Read more...

Nuflor Injections

 

Some time ago, I was facing a challenge with a large Ochiba that developed ulcers. As we went through the checklist of possible causes we soon realised that the problem started with an uncontrolled spawning in the pond. Slight damage of the fins, lost scales etc. are normal after spawning and it normally cured spontaneously. Unfortunately this fish was in a sorry state with torn fins and severe bruises on the body.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:52

Read more...

Organophosphates

 

 


Organophosphates are potentially dangerous to both fish and humans. More detail are available on this site. Because of the potential dangers, the indiscriminate elimination of invertebrates in natural systems as well as the cumulative effect in fish tissue, the use of organophosphates in fish disease control has been banned in many countries. The most widely used organophosphate in the treatment of Koi is Trichlorfon. Trichlorfon is listed as an active ingredient in various insecticides, but because of the varying concentrations in different preparations, I prefer Trichlorfon powder obtainable from agricultural stores.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:52

Read more...

pH Stabiliser

 

Dr. Eric Johnson, in his book Koi Health and Disease, describe various ways to raise pH in a pond. The most remarkable piece of advice to prevent pH problems from occurring is the use of the “pH pill”. Although the book describes the use of the pH pill in fish tanks, I have used it now for considerable time successfully in all my ponds. Over time I have improved the concept to some extent and am happy to share the method used with readers.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:53

Read more...

Potassium Permanganate Dip

 

 
The various photos and material for this article were kindly supplied by Julie de Villiers.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:53

Read more...

Potassium Permanganate in the Treatment of Koi ponds

It is known that Potassium Permanganate is an oxidizer that clears the water of most of the diseases and organisms that adversely affect Koi. The article below is published with the kind permission of Dr. Roddy M. Conrad who is a Koi hobbyist of some renown and also a biochemist.

 
Dr. Conrad has developed a procedure for treating at 2 PPM in concurrent treatments the same day.  This makes the use of Potassium Permanganate much safer for the fish.

This article is published without any alterations and therefore the measurements and weights should be converted to the metric system. 

Please note that:

2 ppm = 2 g per 1000 litres
1 Imperial gallon = 4.5 litres
1 US gallon = 3.78 litres

 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:54

Read more...

Silver Nitrate

 

Almost every person discussing viral infections these days are experts. Some are experts because they read other peoples studies, some have studied viral infections and some have heard about it and formed an opinion. I am saying this because right from the start I must confess that I am no expert. The raging debate currently is about the Lymphocystis virus and whether koi and therefore carp can be infected by this virus. I have seen quite a few authors swear that it can infect carp and describe it fairly accurately. Some just say that it cannot infect carp and that’s it. So for the poor hobbyist like me it becomes a nightmare.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:55

Read more...

Sodium Thiosulfate (Dechlorinator)

 

Chlorine is a toxic element, and excess chlorine could be harmful to fish and crustaceans, so it is important to remove chlorine from the water before introducing the stock.


It is stated that even as little as .05 parts per million (ppm) of chlorine in your pond may result in fish deaths. Others say, you can add 10% chlorinated water to your pond without any worries. But if your source water has a chlorine content of 0.5 ppm, a typical value, and you add 10% to your pond, the pond concentration of chlorine is .05 ppm - a toxic level!


Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:56

Read more...

Topical treatment of bacterial infections.

 


Ulcers can occur at any time of the year through injury caused by protruding objects in the pond, feeding frenzies, flashing while trying to get rid of parasites, spawning, netting, jumping out of the pond, “bag rub” during transport, parasites, bacterial infections and many more reasons depending on the specific pond.

Mostly small injuries will go unnoticed because a fish struggle continuously to prevent water from entering the body through osmosis. In water temperatures of 18 degrees Celsius and higher, a small wound caused by injury is therefore sealed by a thin membrane of skin and mucus as soon as possible after injury, and complete healing will occur without complications. Opportunistic bacteria are a natural occurrence in any pond. A comprehensive article on bacterial infections can be viewed here, and it is therefore sufficient to say that should opportunistic bacteria get access to the fish through the wound, the healing process will not be as smooth and intervention by the koi keeper may be necessary.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 29 February 2012 12:55

Read more...
  •  Start 
  •  Prev 
  •  1  2 
  •  Next 
  •  End 

Page 1 of 2