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Koi anatomy


Dr Paula Reynolds describes it very eloquently, in Koi-Carp Magazine, August 2000.

The outermost body protection for koi is the mucus coating which forms a layer known as the cuticle.  The mucus is comprised of natural secretions containing antibiotics, which are the proteins that fight disease. Primarily the mucus prevents the adherence to the body by pathogens such as bacteria, virus and parasites. These antibiotics produce a general response to all the harmful organisms in an aquatic environment rather than targeting one harmful organism specifically.

Last Updated on Monday, 03 January 2011 17:01


Fin and scale regeneration


Most koi keepers will know that scale loss can and will occur and fins will get damage during the course of koi keeping. The majority of reasons have to do with injury or parasites and the resulting bacterial infections that sometimes follow. The question is, will they grow back?

Last Updated on Sunday, 28 August 2011 17:37


Swim Bladder

The swim-bladder, also known as an air bladder, is an air-filled sac situated just under the backbone at the top of the abdominal cavity. This thin walled sac may function in several ways, for example as a buoyant float, a sound producer and receptor, and in some fish as a respiratory organ. The organ therefore also acts as an aid to "hearing" by amplifying water-borne sounds. It therefore serves as a resonating chamber to produce or receive sound.

Last Updated on Monday, 31 January 2011 20:09


Thermal Shock


Carp have a preferred body temperature (PBT) of 22 to 28 degrees Celsius. It is generally agreed that koi can acclimate to temperatures outside that range if it is gradually adjusted. It is also common knowledge that koi can go into thermal shock when they experience substantial but instant temperature changes. The question is why?

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 September 2010 21:34


What is the C-start escape response in koi?



Those of you that have touched a koi against the side with a net will recall that it will bend into a C-shape and dart away at roughly 90 degrees. This will happen in a split second and is called the C-start response or C-start reflex.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 21 September 2010 22:20